LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (primarily methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane, C2H6) that has been cooled to a liquid form for ease and safety of storage or transport without pressure. It takes about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in gaseous form (at standard temperature and pressure conditions). LNG is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. The dangers include flammability after evaporation into gas, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves the removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gas, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which can cause difficulties downstream. Natural gas is then condensed into a liquid at pressures close to atmospheric by cooling it to about −162 °C (−260 °F); the maximum transport pressure is set at about 25 kPa (4 psi) (measuring pressure), which is approximately 1.25 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level.
BioCNG is another form of utilization of biogas. The biogas produced comes from palm oil mill waste which is processed with a biogas digester where then the concentration of methane gas is increased so that the resulting product is in the form of BioCNG which has the same characteristics as CNG.
Solar panels are devices that convert sunlight into electricity by using photovoltaic (PV) cells. PV cells are made of materials that produce electrons when exposed to light. Electrons flow through a circuit and produce direct current (DC) electricity, which can be used to power various devices or stored in batteries. Solar panels are also known as solar cell panels, solar electrical panels, or PV modules.
Solar panels are usually arranged in groups called arrays or systems. A photovoltaic system consists of one or more solar panels, an inverter that converts DC electricity into alternating current (AC) electricity, and sometimes other components such as controllers, meters, and trackers. Photovoltaic systems can provide electricity for off-grid applications, such as remote homes or cabins, or deliver electricity to the power grid and obtain credit or payment from utility companies.
This is called a grid-connected photovoltaic system.
Some advantages of solar panels are using renewable and clean energy sources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and lowering electricity bills. Some disadvantages are that they depend on the availability and intensity of sunlight, require cleaning, and have high initial costs.
Solar panels are widely used for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes, as well as for space and transportation applications.